Article 9 states: “Parties from industrialized countries shall provide financial resources to assist Parties from developing countries in containing and adapting to their obligations under the Convention.” It also notes that “developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a variety of sources, instruments and channels” and that this “mobilization of climate finance should represent progress beyond previous efforts.” The Cancún Accords, which emerged from COP16 in Cancún, Mexico, in December 2010, commit developed country parties to the UNFCCC to “the goal of jointly mobilizing $100 billion per year by 2020 to meet the needs of developing countries.” From November 30 to November 11. In December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global climate meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding, universal agreement that would limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2°C (3.6°F) above the temperature scale set before the start of the Industrial Revolution. During the decade 2006-2015, warming reached 0.87°C (±0.12°C) compared to 1850-1900, mainly due to human activities that increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Given that global temperature is currently increasing by 0.2°C (±0.1°C) per decade, human-induced warming around 2017 reached 1°C above pre-industrial levels and, if this rate of warming continues, would reach 1.5°C by 2040. Commitments made so far could raise global temperatures by up to 2.7°C, but the agreement sets out a roadmap to accelerate progress. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to have risen by 3.2°C by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, annual emissions must be below 25 gigatons (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions will be 56 Gt CO2e by 2030, double the environmental target. In order to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, the annual global reduction in emissions between 2020 and 2030 requires a reduction in emissions of 7.6% per year. The four largest emitters (China, the United States, eu27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation.
China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. The United States emits 13% of global emissions and emissions increased by 2.5% in 2018. The EU emits 8.5% of global emissions and has fallen by 1% per year over the last decade. Emissions decreased by 1.3% in 2018. India`s 7% of global emissions increased by 5.5% in 2018, but its per capita emissions are among the lowest in the G20.  Countries also aim to reach “a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible.” The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   (b) improve adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change and promote climate resilience and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions, in a way that does not compromise food production; The Paris Agreement is the culmination of decades of international efforts to combat climate change. Here`s a little story.
Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to do their part and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: the commitments that countries should make are not otherwise worded, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not subject to any penalty if they do not meet the proposed targets. What the Paris Agreement requires, however, is monitoring, reporting, and reassessing countries` individual and collective goals over time in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next set of targets every five years – unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at that target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are “capable of doing so” – to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries mitigate climate change and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to support the mobilisation of transformation finance with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement established hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. At the Paris conference in 2015, where the agreement was negotiated, developed countries reaffirmed their commitment to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 and agreed to continue to mobilize $100 billion a year in financing until 2025.  The commitment refers to the existing plan to provide $100 billion per year to developing countries for assistance with climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.  In order to avoid major changes in life as we know it, global measures must be taken. Hence the Paris Agreement, which sets the ultimate goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century.
In fact, the seemingly small difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees could have a dramatic impact on low-lying nations and coral reefs. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism that requires a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The American people believe in climate change – and are determined to do something about it. Warmer temperatures – both on land and at sea – are changing global weather patterns and changing how and where precipitation falls. These changing patterns exacerbate dangerous and deadly droughts, heat waves, floods, wildfires and storms, including hurricanes. They also melt ice caps, glaciers, and permafrost layers, which can lead to sea level rise and coastal erosion. Warmer temperatures also affect entire ecosystems, unbalancing migration patterns and life cycles.
For example, an early spring can cause trees and plants to bloom before bees and other pollinators appear. While global warming can lead to longer growing seasons and higher food production in some areas, areas already struggling with water scarcity are expected to become drier, creating a risk of drought, crop failures or wildfires. Nicolas Holiber`s old-fashioned wooden sculptures highlight the threat that climate change poses to birdwatchers. The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, represents the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. . . .