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THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, in order to promote international cooperation and achieve international peace and security by committing themselves not to resort to war, by establishing open, just and honourable relations among nations, firmly establishing the conventions of international law as a true rule of conduct among Governments, and maintaining justice and conscientious respect for all contractual obligations in the relations of organized peoples with each other Accept the present Covenant of Nations The members of the League of Nations undertake to respect the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all members of the League of Nations and to preserve them against external aggression. In the event of such aggression or in the event of a threat or threat of such aggression, the Council shall deliberate on the means by which this obligation must be fulfilled. Almost all former League of Nations mandates had become sovereign States by 1990, including all former United Nations Trust Territories, with the exception of a few successor units to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (formerly Japan`s Trust Mandate). These exceptions include the Northern Mariana Islands, which are a Commonwealth in political union with the United States with the status of an unincorporated organized territory. The Northern Mariana Islands elect their own governor as territorial head of government, but they remain U.S. territory, with their head of state being the President of the United States and federal funds for the Commonwealth administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Island Affairs. The members of the Federation agree that whenever they deem it appropriate to submit to arbitration disputes which they deem appropriate for arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily resolved by diplomacy, they shall submit the whole matter to arbitration. Disputes concerning the interpretation of a treaty, any question of international law, the existence of a fact which, if established, would constitute a breach of an international obligation, or the extent and nature of reparations to be paid or such a breach shall be declared as one of the most appropriate to be submitted to arbitration.

For the purposes of the examination of such a dispute, the arbitral tribunal to which the case is seized is the court to which the parties to the dispute agree or which is fixed in an agreement between them. The members of the League agree that they will perform in good faith any reward bestowed upon them and that they will not resort to war against a member of the League who respects it. If such an award is not enforced, the Council shall propose the measures to be taken to implement it. The U.S. Department of State`s Digest of International Law indicates that the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne provided for the application of the principles of state succession to “A” mandates. The Treaty of Versailles (1920) provisionally recognized the former Ottoman communities as independent nations. [3] It also demanded that Germany recognize the disposition of the former Ottoman territories and recognize the new states established within their borders. [23] The provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) obliged the newly created states that acquired the territory separated from the Ottoman Empire to pay pensions on the Ottoman national debt and to assume responsibility for the management of the concessions granted by the Ottomans.

The treaty also allowed states to acquire, without payment, all property and possessions of the Ottoman Empire located on their territory. [24] The treaty provided that the League of Nations had jurisdiction to establish an arbitral tribunal to settle any dispute that might arise and stipulated that its decisions were final. [24] Any subsequent international contract or undertaking entered into by a member of the League must be immediately registered with the Secretariat and published by the Secretariat as soon as possible. Such a treaty or international commitment is not binding until it is registered. Any war or threat of war, whether or not directly affecting any of the members of the Society, is hereby declared a matter affecting the whole Society, and the Society shall take all measures that may be deemed wise and effective to protect the peace of nations. In the event of such an emergency, the Secretary General shall, at the request of a member of the Society, convene without delay a meeting of the Council. It is also stated that every member of the Society has the right to draw the attention of the Assembly or the Council to any circumstance that affects international relations and threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding among the nations on which peace depends. If a member of the League goes to war in defiance of his obligations under Articles 12, 13 or 15, he shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an act of war against all other members of the League who undertake to submit him immediately to the severance of all commercial or financial relations. the prohibition of any sexual intercourse between their nation and nationals of the Contracting State and the prevention of any financial, commercial or personal relationship between nationals of the Contracting State and nationals of another State, whether or not he is a member of the Society.

It is the duty of the Council in this case to recommend to the various Governments concerned which effective military, naval or air force the members of the League should contribute individually to the armed forces to be used to protect the Alliances of the League. The members of the League further agree that they will support each other in the financial and economic measures taken under this Article in order to minimize the losses and inconveniences resulting from the above-mentioned measures and that they will support each other in opposing all special measures, which the State breaking the pact directs against one of its members. and that they will take the necessary measures to allow the armed forces of one of the members of the League, which are working together to protect the Alliances of the League, to cross their territory. Any member of the League who has violated a pact of the League may be declared a non-member of the League by a vote of the Council, represented by the representatives of all other members of the League. The mandate system was introduced by Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, drafted by the victors of the First World War. The article referred to regions that were no longer governed by their former ruler after the war, but their peoples were not considered “capable of defending themselves in the difficult conditions of the modern world.” .