In 2013, COP 19 in Warsaw called on parties to submit their “Nationally Determined Contributions” (INDCs) to the Paris Agreement well in advance of COP 21. These submissions represented the self-defined mitigation targets by each country for the period from 2020 onwards. The final NDCs have been submitted by each party after its formal ratification or adoption of the Agreement and are registered in a UNFCCC registry. To date, 186 parties have submitted their first NDCs. The United States announces its intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. WWF is calling on the Trump administration to reconsider its decision, saying the UNITED States must commit to reducing carbon pollution and preparing communities for the effects of climate change. In addition, the agreement introduces a new mechanism to “facilitate implementation and promote compliance”. This “non-adversarial” committee of experts will try to help countries that are lagging behind in their commitments to get back on track. There are no penalties for non-compliance.
The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses mitigation, adaptation to greenhouse gas emissions and financing from 2020 onwards. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping a global temperature increase this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Prof. John Shepherd, from the National Centre for Oceanography at the University of Southampton, says the agreement contains welcome aspirations, but few people realise how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. Ultimately, all parties have acknowledged the need to “avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on how to classify, address and share responsibility for losses.  On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement, but also indicated his willingness to renegotiate the agreement or negotiate a new one. Other countries reiterated their strong support for the Paris Agreement, saying they were not open to further negotiations. The United States officially began withdrawing from the Paris Agreement on November 4, 2019; it entered into force on 4 November 2020.
The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S. economy because it would not include developing countries such as China and India. Without the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty proved limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. The government could send a strong signal at the start of the school year by declaring its commitment to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, and could promise to officially present a new NDC as soon as it is able to do so. (To meet the agreement`s technical requirements for an NDC, it could provide a placeholder or a temporary NDC in the meantime, e.B. restore the Obama administration`s goal for 2025.) Ideally, it would then be able to provide an ambitious and credible NDC in time for the delayed COP 26 in Glasgow in December 2021. However, scientists point out that the Paris Agreement needs to be tightened if it is to have a chance of curbing dangerous climate change.
At the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The goal of preventing scientifically dangerous and irreversible levels of climate change – which should be achieved with a warming of about 2°C compared to pre-industrial times – is at the heart of the agreement. This strategy included energy and climate policy, including the so-called 20/20/20 targets, namely to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 20%, increase the market share of renewable energy to 20% and increase energy efficiency by 20%.  Adaptation issues have been given greater importance in the preparation of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries are held accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel component of the agreement with mitigation.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing to do, only to promise” and believes that only a general tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol.
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